📝 Natural language processing (NLP) utils: word embeddings (Word2Vec, GloVe, FastText, …) and preprocessing transformers, compatible with scikit-learn Pipelines. 🛠 Check the documentation for more information.


Install package with pip install zeugma.


Embedding transformers can be either be used with downloaded embeddings (they all come with a default embedding URL) or trained.

Pretrained embeddings

As an illustrative example the cosine similarity of the sentences what is zeugma and a figure of speech is computed using the GloVe pretrained embeddings.:

>>> from zeugma.embeddings import EmbeddingTransformer
>>> glove = EmbeddingTransformer('glove')
>>> embeddings = glove.transform(['what is zeugma', 'a figure of speech'])
>>> from sklearn.metrics.pairwise import cosine_similarity
>>> cosine_similarity(embeddings)[0, 1]

Training embeddings

To train your own Word2Vec embeddings use the Gensim sklearn API.

Fine-tuning embeddings

Embeddings fine tuning (training embeddings with preloaded values) will be implemented in the future.

Other examples

Usage examples are present in the examples folder.

Additional examples using Zeugma can be found in some posts of my blog.


Feel free to fork this repo and submit a Pull Request.


The development workflow for this repo is the following:

  1. create a virtual environment: python -m venv venv && source venv/bin/activate
  2. install required packages: pip install -r requirements.txt
  3. install the pre-commit hooks: pre-commit install
  4. install the package itself in editable mode: pip install -e .
  5. run the test suite with: pytest from the root folder

Distribution via PyPI

To upload a new version to PyPI, simply:

  1. tag your new version on git: git tag -a x.x -m "my tag message"
  2. update the download_url field in the setup.py file
  3. commit, push the code and the tag (git push origin x.x), and make a PR
  4. make sure you have a .pypirc file structured like this in your home folder (you can use https://upload.pypi.org/legacy/ for the URL field)
  5. once the updated code is present in master run python setup.py sdist && twine upload dist/* from the root of the package to distribute it.

Building documentation

To build the documentation locally simply run make html from the docs folder.

Bonus: what’s a zeugma?

It’s a figure of speech: “The act of using a word, particularly an adjective or verb, to apply to more than one noun when its sense is appropriate to only one.” (from Wiktionary).

For example, “He lost his wallet and his mind.” is a zeugma.